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Vacuum Pressure impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of Fruits and Vegetables

Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products.

This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food During typical vacuum impregnation the free spaces and capillaries of the material are filled due to a mechanically induced difference in pressure. The process consists of two stages: The phase of reduced pressure and the phase of atmospheric pressure.

Impregnation of the material occurs as a consequence of two phenomena: hydrodynamic mechanism (HDM) and deformation relaxation phenomena (DRP), which lead to the filling of intracellular capillaries.

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of pieces of guava and papaya

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
pieces of guava and papaya papaya and guava fruit juices (1—Extracted by blending with water, ratio 1:1; 2, 3—Extracted fruit juices containing 15° and 30° Brix, respectively) with an addition of Lactobacillus casei microorganisms p1 5 kPa t1 5, 10, 15 min t2 10 min after impregnation: 108 to 109 CFU/g Lactobacillus casei, after drying at 40 °C for 36 h: 107 CFU/g Lactobacillus casei in impregnated fruits

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of apple

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
apple isotonic sucrose solution containing 108 CFU/g Bifidobacterium ssp. p1 14, 17, 30, 43, 57 kPa greater incorporation at pressures of 14 and 17 kPa, levels of microorganisms over 107 CFU/g

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of apple slices (cv. Fuji)

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
apple slices (cv. Fuji) apple juice diluted with pre- sterilized distilled water (1:1, v/v, pH 5–5.2) with an addition of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 7469, in 1:1 (v/v) glycerol frozen cultures) p1 20 kPa t1 15 min t2 15 min apple slices were dried by air drying, freeze drying, and a combination of air drying + REV drying after vacuum impregnation: 109 CFU/gof tissue

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of apples cv. Granny Smith (disk-shaped samples)

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
apples cv. Granny Smith (disk-shaped samples) mandarin juice (pH 5, 8–6, 0) with an addition of Lactobacillus salivarius (Salivarius spp.) p1 5 kPa t1 10 min t2 10 min after vacuum impregnation: 1.51·108 CFU/g Lactobacillus salivarius spp. Salivarius; the highest microbial content: after 24 h incubation period, pH 6

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of apples cv. Granny Smith (disk-shaped samples)

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
apples cv. Granny Smith (disk- shaped samples) mandarin juice inoculated with Lactobacillus salivarius spp. salivarius at pH 6 and after 24 h incubation p1 5 kPa t1 10 min t2 10 min concentration of microorganisms in the final product: 107 CFU/g

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of eggplant fruits and orange peel

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
eggplant fruits and orange peel isotonic solution of sucrose, iron gluconate and calcium lactate p1 5 kPa t1 15 min t2 15 min a mathematical model to determine the concentration of active components in impregnation solution was established in order to formulate functional food with different calcium and iron salts levels

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of Iceberg lettuce leaves

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
Iceberg lettuce leaves sucrose aqueous solution of the same aw as lettuce leaves used vaccum impregnation reference solution and isotonic solution with an addition of Ca lactogluconate (5.4 g Ca/L of water) p1 50 kPa t1 10 min t2 10 min total content of 169 mg Ca per 250 g of impregnated iceberg lettuce leaves

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of apple slices cv.Granny Smith

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
apple slices cv. Granny Smith sucrose isotonic solutions with an addition of calcium lactate (44.2g/L) or ferrous gluconate (1.13 g/L) p1 5 kPa t1 10 min t2 10 min after vacuum impregnation: fruits enriched with Ca2+ and Fe2+ ions respectively

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of apple slices cv. Granny Smith

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
apple slices cv. Granny Smith isotonic aqueous solution containing sucrose (aw 0.986) and calcium lactate OD in osmotic solution with an addition of 1% calcium salt p1 5 kPa t1 10 min t2 10 min an increase in calcium content from 0% to 40% of the recommended daily intake for an adult per 200 g of apples

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of fresh-cut apples cv. Fuji

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
fresh-cut apples cv. Fuji 20% diluted high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or 1% calcium caseinate (CC) aqueous solution with an addition of 0.4% α tocopherol acetate, 7.5% Gluconal Cal® (GC), and 0.04% zinc lactate (ZL) p1 13.3 kPa t1 15 min t2 30 min In 100 g fresh-cut apples the vitamin E content increased more than 100 times, and calcium and zinc contents increased about 20 times compared with unfortified apples

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of fresh-cut pears cv. D'Anjou

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
fresh-cut pears cv. D'Anjou 20% diluted wildflower honey solution with 0.4% to 0.8% α- tocopherol from 3 different sources: α-tocopherol-acetate (VEacetate), free α-tocopherol (V-OH), or water-soluble α- tocopherol-acetate (VE-H2O) p1 10 kPa t1 15 min t2 30 min vitamin E content of impregnated pears increased 80 to 100 times and 65% to 80% VE activities were retained during 2 week of storage

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
whole potatoes 10% ascorbic acid solution p1 9.33 kPa t1 0–60 min t2 3 h after vacuum impregnation the ascorbic acid content of whole potatoes increased ten times (150mg/100 g fresh weight)

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of endive, cauliflower, broccoli, carrots

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
endive, cauliflower, broccoli, carrots vacuum impregnation reference solution—aqueous sucrose solutions of the same aw as each of the four raw materials; Aloe vera aqueous solution with an addition of 5 and 30 g/L of aloe vera powder (powder dispersed in water), respectively p1 50 kPa t1 10 min t2 10 min after vacuum impregnation: incorporation of up to 7 g of Aloe vera in 100 g (dry matter) in broccoli, about 4 g in cauliflower and endive, and about 3 g in carrots

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of apples cv. Granny Smith (disk-shaped samples)

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
apples cv. Granny Smith (disk-shaped samples) mandarin low pulp juice p1 5 kPa t1 10 min t2 10 min forty grams of the final product (apple snack) made using mandarin juice provide the same quantity of hesperidin as 250 mL of fresh mandarin juice

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of green apples cv. Orin (apple cubes)

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
green apples cv. Orin (apple cubes) sugar solution (total soluble solids of 50° Brix) mixed with blackcurrant syrup (47.4°–47.8° Brix). Total soluble solids of the mixture of sugar syrup/blackcurrant syrup of 80%/20%, 70%/30% and 60%/40% were 49.1°, 49.3° and 49.5° Brix, respectively p1 40, 60, 80 kPa t1 15, 30, 45 min (following a Box–Behnken response Surface methodology design) t2 2.5 min optimized conditions for vacuum impregnation of apple cubes were 18%–20% blackcurrant concentrate level, 77–80 kPa vacuum pressure and 38–45 min vacuum time

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of fresh-cut apple cv. Granny Smith (wedges, each ca. 10 g)

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
fresh-cut apple cv. Granny Smith (wedges, each ca. 10 g) 50% (v/v) Mexican or 50% (v/v) Argentinean honeys, distilled water (control sample) p1 70 kPa t1 10 min t2 10 min less acceptable in terms of sensory qualities than their fresh-cut counterparts, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity values in vacuum impregnated products were lower than in fresh-cut samples

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of Apple cylinders

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
apple cylinders apple juice with an addition of microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae, milk with an addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus casei p1 5 kPa t1 10 min t2 10 min

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of apple cylinders cv. Granny Smith

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
apple cylinders cv. Granny Smith sucrose isotonic solution containing microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Phoma glomerata p1 10, 17, 30, 43, 57 kPa (one vacuum pulse of 2 min) increase by 0.36 log for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 0.73 log for Lactobacillus acidophilus and 1.07 log for Phoma glomerata for vacuum impregnated sample in comparison to soaking sample

vacuum impregnation to modify health-promoting properties of 13 apple cultivars (6 mm apple slices)

Raw Material Composition of Vacuum Impregnation Solutions Process Parameters Effect
13 apple cultivars (6 mm apple slices) commercial apple juice (11.1° ± 0.1° Brix) enriched with 0.3% hfv (high in flavonoids) apple peel extract p1 10–80 kPa t1 5 min t2 10 min after vacuum impregnation of 13 apple cultivars: quercetin content ranged between 368 and 604 μg/g dry matter

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